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What are Neurons?

The human body is consists of more than hundred billion cells. Among these cells, different types of cells are found to perform specialized tasks in the body system. In the human nervous system, the cells specialized for receiving, transmitting and processing of nerve impulses to and from the brain are known as neurons. They are the basic structural and functional units of nerve tissues.
Structure of Neuron
Each neuron processes and transmits information in both chemical and electrical forms. Actually, neurons are the core component of the communication system in the human body. They receive electric signals from all parts of the body. Neurons translate these signals into specific neurotransmitters and deliver these neurotransmitters to target cells.

Structurally, as like other cells of the human body, a neuron is also consists of a nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, cytoplasm and cell membrane.

Usually, most neurons have three distinct parts:
  1. A cell body
  2. An axon
  3. Multiple dendrites

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