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How does the Lymphatic System Work?

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The lymphatic system is the core component of our immune system. It is associated with the immune system in such a way that the two systems are almost indifferent. For this reason, in common usage, they're often used interchangeably.

Definition: The lymphatic system can be described as a drainage system of the human body that retrieves and carries excess fluids from tissues to the bloodstream. Functionally, this system is in close association with the circulatory system. However, unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymph drainage is a one-way flow, not a circulation.

The lymphatic system consists of all cells, tissues, and organs that contain aggregates of lymphocytes, including the lymph organs (e.g. red bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes and lymphoid nodules) lymph capillaries, lymph vessels and lymph ducts.
How It WorksBecause of blood pressure in the circulatory system, constituents of blood – mainly water but also comprise solutes (e.g., electrolytes and nutrien…

Why Size Reduction is an Important Step in Pharmaceutical Formulations?

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Size reduction can be illustrated as the process in which the particle size of a substance or chemical is reduced. This process converts the substance or chemical to smaller pieces, powders, coarse particles, or an advanced type of subdivision. The synonymous terms “comminution” and “grinding” are used for the process of size reduction. In addition, most often, the raw or active materials to be used in formulations do not exist in desired size. For that reason, most of the materials are reduced to an optimum size at different stages during processing of a preparation.
Processes of Size ReductionDuring preparation of a pharmaceutical product, many processes are used for size reduction (e.g. grinding, cutting, crushing, micronizing, chopping, milling, and many more). However, the use of these processes mainly depends on the type of machine or equipment installed in the processing area. On the other hand, the preference of equipment or machine depends on several factors, such as the initi…

Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Neonates

Among neonates, the most common disorder is respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) also called “hyaline membrane diseases” (HMD). This acute lung disease often affects at the birth of a newborn, and it usually affects premature or preterm babies. In addition, infants that born prior to 28 weeks of pregnancy period may develop respiratory distress syndrome.
Treatment of Respiratory Distress SyndromeA) Oxygen (02) TherapyA relatively big baby born around 6 to 8 weeks premature may need no more than O2 therapy to treat the condition. The natural history is that it becomes worse over the first 2 days, reaches a plateau & than gradually improves.
B) Mechanical VentilationSmaller, more than premature and more severely affected babies commonly go into respiratory failure and require mechanical ventilation. Some babies require high conc. of O2 (up to 100%) In such pharmacological conc. the therapeutic index becomes an important issue. Fortunately, pulmonary O2 toxicity is not a problem to …

Classification of Penicillin

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Penicillin is derived from a fungi named Penicillium. They are a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics, which are used in the treatment or prevention of bacterial infections originated by susceptible, particularly gram-positive, organisms. They are usually bactericidal in action.
Classification of PenicillinBased upon Penicillin’s ability to execute or destroy bacterium and effectiveness (ranging from limited to extensive), they can be classified into following four classes.
Natural Penicillins (Penicillin V, Penicillin G, Benzathine, Procaine Penicillin)In the penicillin family, antibiotics of natural penicillin class were the first innovative agents, which were launched for clinical purposes. The original structure of penicillin-G is the basis of natural Penicillins. Antibiotics from this particular class of Penicillin are mainly useful against gram (+) strains of staphylococci and streptococci and a few gram (-) bacteria (for example, meningococcus). Additionally, you need to know that Pe…

Common Machineries Used in Pharmaceutical Tablet Manufacturing

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If you aspire to a career as a pharmacist, you may be interested in learning about the common machineries that are frequently used in major Pharmaceuticals.

Pharma Machines and Equipments vary from company to company; in most of the cases, they vary both in origin and design. Leaders in the pharma industry usually use highly advanced and sophisticated machinaries to improve their productivity and maintain strict quality requirements.

Below is a list of common machineries used in a typical tablet section:

Mass mixer machine

Mass Mixer (From Inside)

Mass Mixer
Oscillating granulator

Oscillating Granulator
High quality YK Model Swing granulator
Rapid mixer granulator or high speed mixer granulator

Rapid Mixer Granulator (From Author's Own Album)
Multi mill machine

Typical Multi Mill
Multi Mill (Close View)
Double cone blender

Double Cone Blender (From Author's Own Album)
Schematic Diagram of Double Cone Blender
Drum mixer

Drum Mixer (Front View)
Drum Mixer (Back View)
Fluid bed dryer

Fluid Bed D…

Drugs that cause Nausea or Vomiting

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There are certain drugs that trigger a vomiting tendency. Studies suggest that drugs inducing nausea or vomiting potentially work on two regions in the nervous system: the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) and the vomiting center (VC).
1. Drugs acting on chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)ApomorphineEmetine (when given parenterally and only at large doses)L-DOPAEstrogens (morning sickness of pregnancy)Ergot alkaloidsCardiac glycosidesOpiatesCancer chemotherapeutic agentsCardiac glycosidesNOTE: The therapeutic dose of morphine can either induce or block emesis, as it can bind with both emetic and antiemetic opioid receptors. However, both actions can be blocked by naloxone, an opioid antagonist drug used to counter the effects of opiate overdose. Emetic effect is mediated by delta or kappa receptors, whereas antiemetic effect by mu receptors.
2. Drugs acting locally on the G-I tractThey activate specific cells, enterochromaffin cells, in the mucosa of the digestive tract or gastro intestina…